Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Histograms - 3 : 2D Histograms

Hi friends,

In the first article, we calculated and plotted one-dimensional histogram. It is called one-dimensional because we are taking only one feature into our consideration, ie grayscale intensity value of the pixel. But in two-dimensional histograms, you consider two features. Normally it is used for finding color histograms where two features are Hue & Saturation values of every pixel.

There is a python sample in the official samples already for finding color histograms. We will try to understand how to create such a color histogram, and it will be useful in understanding further topics like Histogram Back-Projection.

2D Histogram in OpenCV

It is quite simple and calculated using the same function, cv2.calcHist(). For color histogram, we need to convert the image from BGR to HSV. (Remember, for 1D histogram, we converted from BGR to Grayscale). While calling calcHist(), parameters are :

channels = [0,1] # because we need to process both H and S plane.
bins = [180,256] # 180 for H plane and 256 for S plane
range = [0,180,0,256] # Hue value lies between 0 and 180 & Saturation lies between 0 and 256

import cv2
import numpy as np

img = cv2.imread('home.jpg')
hsv = cv2.cvtColor(img,cv2.COLOR_BGR2HSV)

hist = cv2.calcHist( [hsv], [0, 1], None, [180, 256], [0, 180, 0, 256] )

That's it.

2D Histogram in Numpy

Numpy also provides a specific function for this : np.histogram2d(). (Remember, for 1D histogram we used np.histogram() ).

import cv2
import numpy as np
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

img = cv2.imread('home.jpg')
hsv = cv2.cvtColor(img,cv2.COLOR_BGR2HSV)

hist, xbins, ybins = np.histogram2d(h.ravel(),s.ravel(),[180,256],[[0,180],[0,256]])

First argument is H plane, second one is the S plane, third is number of bins for each and fourth is their range.

Now we can check how to plot this color histogram

Plotting 2D Histogram

Method - 1 : Using cv2.imshow()
The result we get is a two dimensional array of size 180x256. So we can show them as we do normally, using cv2.imshow() function. It will be a grayscale image and it won't give much idea what colors are there, unless you know the Hue values of different colors.

Method - 2 : Using matplotlib
We can use matplotlib.pyplot.imshow() function to plot 2D histogram with different color maps. It gives us much more better idea about the different pixel density. But this also, doesn't gives us idea what color is there on a first look, unless you know the Hue values of different colors. Still I prefer this method. It is simple and better.

NB : While using this function, remember, interpolation flag should be 'nearest' for better results.

import cv2
import numpy as np
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

img = cv2.imread('home.jpg')
hsv = cv2.cvtColor(img,cv2.COLOR_BGR2HSV)
hist = cv2.calcHist( [hsv], [0, 1], None, [180, 256], [0, 180, 0, 256] )

plt.imshow(hist,interpolation = 'nearest')
plt.show()

Below is the input image and its color histogram plot. X axis shows S values and Y axis shows Hue.

2D Histogram in matplotlib with 'heat' color map


In histogram, you can see some high values near H = 100 and S = 200. It corresponds to blue of sky. Similarly another peak can be seen near H = 25 and S = 100. It corresponds to yellow of the palace. You can verify it with any image editing tools like GIMP.

Method 3 : OpenCV sample style !!
There is a sample code for color_histogram in OpenCV-Python2 samples. If you run the code, you can see the histogram shows even the corresponding color. Or simply it outputs a color coded histogram. Its result is very good (although you need to add extra bunch of lines).

In that code, the author created a color map in HSV. Then converted it into BGR. The resulting histogram image is multiplied with this color map. He also uses some preprocessing steps to remove small isolated pixels, resulting in a good histogram.

I leave it to the readers to run the code, analyze it and have your own hack arounds. Below is the output of that code for the same image as above:

OpenCV-Python sample color_histogram.py output

You can clearly see in the histogram what colors are present, blue is there, yellow is there, and some white due to chessboard(it is part of that sample code) is there. Nice !!!

Summary :

So we have looked into what is 2D histogram, functions available in OpenCV and Numpy, how to plot it etc.

So this is it for today !!!

Regards,
Abid Rahman K.